An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices.[1] A discharging battery has a positive terminal, or cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode.[2] The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to an external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an external device. When a battery is connected to an external circuit,electrolytes are able to move as ions within, allowing the chemical reactions to be completed at the separate terminals and so deliver energy to the external circuit. It is the movement of those ions within the battery which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.[3] Historically the term “battery” specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells, however the usage has evolved to additionally include devices composed of a single cell.[4]

Primary (single-use or “disposable”) batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary (rechargeable batteries) can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Examples include thelead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics.

Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers.

According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year,[5] with 6% annual growth.

Batteries have much lower specific energy (energy per unit mass) than common fuels such as gasoline. This is somewhat offset by the higher efficiency of electric motors in producing mechanical work, compared to combustion engines


Main article: History of the battery
A voltaic pile, the first battery
Alessandro Volta demonstrating his pile to French emperorNapoleon Bonaparte

The usage of “battery” to describe a group of electrical devices dates to Benjamin Franklin, who in 1748 described multiple Leyden jars by analogy to a battery of cannon[6] (Benjamin Franklin borrowed the term “battery” from the military, which refers to weapons functioning together[7]).

Alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the voltaic pile, in 1800.[8] This was a stack of copper and zinc plates, separated by brine-soaked paper disks, that could produce a steady current for a considerable length of time. Volta did not appreciate that the voltage was due to chemical reactions. He thought that his cells were an inexhaustible source of energy,[9] and that the associated corrosion effects at the electrodes were a mere nuisance, rather than an unavoidable consequence of their operation, as Michael Faraday showed in 1834.[10]

Although early batteries were of great value for experimental purposes, in practice their voltages fluctuated and they could not provide a large